Hindu Calendar

Lunar Years

The Hindu Cycle contains 60 lunar years, they are:

60 Hindu Years
1 Prabhava 31 Hevimbi
2 Vibhava 32 Vilambi
3 Shukla 33 Vikari
4 Pramodhati 34 Sarvari
5 Prajothpati 35 Plava
6 Angirasa 36 Subhakritu
7 Srimukha 37 Sobhakritu
8 Bhava 38 Krodhi
9 Yuva 39 Viswavasu
10 Dhathu 40 Parabhava
11 Eswara 41 Plavanga
12 Bhahudanya 42 Keelaka
13 Pramadi 43 Soumya
14 Vikrama 44 Sadharana
15 Vriksha 45 Virodhikritu
16 Chitrabhanu 46 46 Paridhavi
17 Swabhanu 47 47 Pramodisha
18 Tharana 48 48 Ananda
19 Parthiva 49 Rakshasa
20 Vyaya 50 Nala
21 Sarvajitu 51 Pingala
22 Sarvadhari 52 Kalayukti
23 Virodhi 53 Saddhartha
24 Vikriti 54 Roudri
25 Khara 55 Durmathi
26 Nandana 56 Dundhubhi
27 Vijaya 57 Rudhirodgari
28 Jaya 58 Rakthakshi
29 Manmatha 59 Krodhana
30 Dhurmukhi 60 Kshaya

Ayanas(Solistices)

The Hindu year is divided into two equal parts, each of which is called Ayana. They are :

1. Uttarayana (Winter Solstice) when the Sun moves in a northerly direction and

2. Dakshinayana (Summer Solstice), when Sun moves in a southerly direction. The solar months are named after the signs the Sun enters and travels.

Six solar months of Uttarayana
1. Capricorn-Makara
2. Aquarius-Kumbha
3. Pisces-Meena
4. Aries-Mesha
5. Taurus-Vrishabha
6. Gemini-Midhuna

 

Six solar months of Dakshinayana
1. Cancer-Karkata
2. Leo-Simha
3. Virgo-Kanya
4. Libra-Tula
5. Scorpio-Vrishchika
6. Sagittarius-Dhanus

Months

The twelve lunar months are named as follows :

Lunar Months
1. Chaitra
2. Vaishakha
3. Jyesta
4. Ashadha
5. Shravana
6. Bhadrapada
7. Ashwayuja
8. Karthika
9. Margashira
10. Pushya
11. Magha
12. Phalguna

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Seasons

These are Six Ruthus (or seasons, as different from four season, amongst the Westerners) each containing two lunar months and they are:

Ruthu Lunar Months
1. Vasantha Chaitra and Vaishaka, when the trees and plants blossom
2. Greeshma Jyesta and Ashadha, when there is a good deal of wind.
3. Varsha Sharavana and Bhadrapada, when it is rainy season.
4. Sharat Ashwija and Karthika, when fruits are aplenty.
5. Himantha Margashira and Pushya, when it is cold
6. Shishira Magha and Phalaguna, when trees and plants shed leaves.

Reasons of names of months: The star on the full Moon day of the lunar month gives the name to that month. Thus in Chaitra, the star Chitra falls on the full moon day. In Vaishakha, the constellation Vishaka rules on the full moon day. In Jyesta, star Jyesta comes on Pournami (full moon) and so on for other months.