36 Gunas in Hindu Marriage: Why are they important for marital bliss?

The term Guna is derived from ancient Sanskrit philosophy. Guna is a crucial element that is still practiced in Hindu philosophy. Predominantly, there are three Gunas, the Sattva, the Rajas, and the Tamas. The Guna-Sattva talks about harmony, peace, goodness, collaboration, and a constructive mindset. The Guna- Rajas talks about passion, activeness, and a state of confusion. While, the Guna- tamas talks about darkness, destruction, and chaos.

It is fairly impossible to describe or classify a Guna in a single word. However, the original meaning of a Guna was a single thread. A single thread that would weave a person’s ability to do things in life.

Gunas are used to measure and predict the characteristics of a person, and it is the interplay of these Gunas that are used to gauge compatibility in men and women before considering them for a formal alliance.

Even today, analyzing the compatibility of a possible pair is still practiced. There are 36 Gunas that the man and women are compared against and with each other and points are rewarded in accordance. If the couple is compatible or is complementing each other’s characteristics with a score of 18, then a marriage can be considered.

The question that is still asked is ‘how many gunas should match for marriage’?

If the score of the couple ranges between 25 and 32, then it is considered a perfect match. In sporadic cases, the couple is extremely compatible, and the count exceeds 32. In these cases, the match is considered very auspicious and is taken as a sign of goodwill from the nakshatras.

Here are the 36 Gunas that are classified in the form of 8 Kootas (Ashtakootas). They are

Varna:

The maximum points awarded to this Guna in the points table is ‘1’. The varna Guna is based on the person’s caste. If the person is a caste Hindu or Savarna, then the points given are one if the person is not a Hindu, then, he is an Avarna and the mark allotted is ‘0.’ Castes like Kshatriya, Brahmin, Vyshyas, and Sudras are considered as Savarnas and Dalits, and tribals are considered as avarnas.

Vasya:

Vasya is used to measure the compatibility between partners. According to the classification in vasya, people are classified into five animal sects; they are Chatushpada, Nara-Human, Jalchar, Vanacara, and Keeta.

Vasya considers the moon signs of the individuals to allot a compatibility score. The maximum points allotted from Vasya are 2, and the least is 0.

If the man and women considering an alliance are from the same animal kingdom, then, the score is maximum at 2, and ‘0’ points if they are from the opposite animal sects and ½ if the combination is of the Manav and Janvar and 1 point for the rest.

Tara:

This Guna looks into the prominence of the birth star of the bride and groom. There are 27 nakshatras in Hinduism that are considered during an alliance of marriage. The groom’s birth star is calculated on the bride’s birth star. The sum is then divided by 7. If the remainder value is an even number, it is considered auspicious.

Likewise, the girl’s birth star is calculated on the basis of the guy’s birth star. This sum is then divided by 9, and the remainder is observed. 

If both the remainders are even numbers, then, it is considered auspicious, and this alliance is given 3 points. And, if one of them has an even number, then, they are given 1.5 points, and 0 points are rewarded if both their remainders are odd numbers. This is also called ‘Kundali Milan by date of birth.’

Yoni:

This koota talks about sexual compatibility. In birth charts, Yoni is classified in 14 animals. They are Mongoose, Horse, Lion, Elephant, Monkey, Sheep, Deer, Dog, Tiger, Cat, Rat, and Cow. If the couple is classified in the same animal group, then, they are given 4 points and 0 points if they are in the enemy sects. If the Yoni is considered friendly, then they are given 3 points. Similarly, 2 points for friendly, and 1 point is given for non-friendly yonis.

Grah Maitri:

Grah Maitri is used to check marriage compatibility by nakshatra. In this, during the birth of a child, a celestial god is assigned according to the moon’s time. These celestial lords are either friends, enemies, or are neutral. If the Rashis are friends, then, the match astrology is given 5 points, if they are enemies, 0 points are given. And in cases where one lord is a friend, and one is neutral, 4 points are given.

Gana:

The Gana Koota deals with temperament and anger. On the basis of the birth stars, they are classified into Deva (Gods), Manav (Human), and Rakshasha(Demons). In this, six marriage points are given when the boy and the girl are Devas. In cases where the boy is Deva, and the Girl is Manav, 5 points are given, and 1 point is given when the combination is of Deva and Rakshasa. In cases where the combination is of a Manav and a Rakshasa, zero points are given.

Rashi:

The Koota Rashi calculates love. The position of the moon is used to check compatibility. If the boy’s moon is 2, 3,4, 5, 6, 8 positions away from the girl’s moon, then it is considered inauspicious. Positions seven and twelve are considered extremely auspicious.

Similarly, if the girl’s moon is 12 positions away, it is not considered as a good sign while positions 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 are considered compatible and auspicious. Rashi is given 7 points in the Gun Milan chart.

Nadi:

The Koota Nadi deals with genetics and hereditary. According to the 27 stars, the boy and the girl are divided into three groups. They are Aadi Nadi, Madhya Nadi, and Pitta Nadi. If the boy’s and the girl’s Nadi koota are not the same, they are awarded 8 points, if they are the same, zero points are awarded.

However, besides horoscope compatibility karma also plays a major role in deciding whether your marriage will be blissful or not. It takes sincere love and effort to make a marriage work with your partner and no amount of compatibility will help in the absence of true communication and efforts from both partners. 

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